The Russians Of Guadalupe Valley
By Greg Niemann
In case you haven’t noticed, the Guadalupe Valley has mushroomed
in importance with more wineries, restaurants, accommodations, attractions,
and the attendant tourists and publicity. The valley, most easily reached off
the toll road north of Ensenada (Highway 3), has become a popular
For various reasons I’d been there numerous times. One adventure
about 15 years ago gave me an insight of the area I never knew existed. This
is what I wrote in 2001:
The Russians of Guadalupe Valley
I didn’t plan on meeting Russians on that trip. It was the wineries of
Baja California that drew my wife and I to the Guadalupe Valley. I
personally don't drink, but I’d written a magazine article about the
wineries of Baja California and needed photos.
Most of Baja’s wineries, including Santo Tomas, L.A. Cetto,
Domecq, Mogor-Badan and Monte Xanic, are in the fertile Guadalupe
Valley some 20 miles or so northeast of Ensenada on Highway 3. Rather
than backtrack from Ensenada we took the graded road off the old (libre)
Highway 1, about 12 miles south of La Mision. (It’s now paved).
I’d driven the road several times before and continually delight in the
trim ranches, fertile farms, numerous orchards with straight rows of peach,
apricot and olive trees, the knurled stumps of the vineyards and the bright
multi-hued flower fields along the way. While I’d heard of the Russians who
had settled there, I was usually searching for something else, like this trip’s
wineries. Other times it was the route of the gold miners who went through
here in the 1870s and 1880s, or the old mission (Baja’s last, Nuestra Senora
de Guadalupe, established in 1834).
In fact the mission was referred to as the peninsula’s most prosperous
and powerful with over 400 Indians, 4,915 head of cattle and fertile fields
fed by an intricate irrigation system. But it had the shortest life of all as in
1840, Jatnil, the leader of the Kumiai Indians. didn’t like the forced
conversion of his people and led a successful revolt against the mission,
chasing the padres out of the valley. It is said that Padre Felix Caballero fled
leaving most of the mission’s livestock.
Plentiful Water in an Attractive Valley
The Kumiai Indians who had been in the area for thousands of years
found the plentiful water and the flora and fauna dependent upon the water
to their liking. They called the place Oja Cunurr, or Painted Caves, alluding
to some crude rock art found in nearby rock outcroppings. The paintings
have since been destroyed, but the rich, fertile rolling hills dappled by
mountain oaks make the valley attractive to all who came through it.
This time we too fell under the valley’s spell and decided to make it a
leisurely day. That’s when we saw the sign “Museo Comunitario Valle de
Guadalupe” nailed to a huge eucalyptus tree in front of a
white block house with a steep roof that looked incongruous in the Baja
We entered to discover an old world heritage proudly displayed in a
new world setting. We were enthralled by the old photos and Russian
artifacts and enraptured by the charm of our hostess Francisca Samarin,
herself a descendent of a colony of Molokan (milk-drinking) Russians who
settled here a long time ago.
The curious settlement started a century ago in Kars, Russia (now
Turkey) where a religious group which called themselves Molokans (milk
drinkers) split from the official church of Russia at the time, the Eastern or
Greek Orthodox Christians. The Molokans strictly followed what they
considered the laws of Moses and abstained from pork, tobacco and alcohol.
They interpreted the term “spiritual milk” noted in the Bible to mean they
should receive much of their nourishment from milk and dairy products.
Pacifists in a Country at War
It was not their diet but their conviction as conscientious objectors
that got them into trouble with Czar Nicholas II. The pacifist Molokans
refused to serve in the military and with a war going on, they found it
prudent to seek a more mellow climate.
So they moved to California, some to the northern part of the state but
most settling around Los Angeles. This rural group, however, found a big
city environment a little difficult to raise crops and had to look elsewhere.
Their prayers were answered in 1905 as Mexican President Porfirio
Diaz agreed to sell the sect 13,000 acres of fertile land in Baja California’s
Guadalupe Valley. Signing on behalf of the approximate 500 settlers in 105
families were Simon Babichoff, Basilio Pivovaroff and Basilio Tolmasoff.
Leadership of the sect fell into the hands of Moises Samaduroff, whose
photo in the museum shows him with the Mexican President.
Other ranchers had already arrived in the valley and the fledgling
viniculture of the area had already begun, along with cattle ranching and
The Russian settlers laid out their town the way they had at home,
equal partitioned lots along a broad tree-covered avenue. Their whitewashed
adobe and wood homes with steep-pitched wooden (some thatched) roofs
had front doors that faced away from the street.
They set about to plant grains and vegetables, olives and grapes and
raised gaggles of geese and bees for honey. Their homes had basements to
store their jams and preserves and honey. They baked an excellent Russian
bread and drank tea or “chai” made in the samovar. The main dish was
borscht, which they made with meat and vegetables and cooked it with
The Molokans worked hard and prayed hard. They dressed simply
with women covering their heads with homemade “kosinkas” or shawls, and
the bearded men wore high-collared shirts called “rubajas” which had
drawstrings around the waist.
Citizens of Mexico
They became splendid citizens of Mexico and while they spoke
Russian in church and at home, were ever loyal to their adopted country. It is
said that Russian-born Mary Rogoff, while she had only a third grade
education, delivered over 1,000 babies to the women of the valley.
In 1938 the populist Mexican President Cardenas designated lands for
the peasants of Mexico. Guadalupe was engulfed by 3,000 Mexicans and the
town was renamed Francisco Zarco. Many Russians left at that time. Others
stayed and over time have assimilated into the culture.
According to Francisca Samarin, “Today there are only 20 pure
Russians left in the Guadalupe Valley, but…” she added with a grin, “There
are about 240 of us with mixed blood.”
The museum consists of a couple of rooms and while Senora Samarin
was showing us around, a couple of light-haired, light-eyed children played
at her feet.
Around back of the museum was a special room, the sauna. Like the
many others in the community, it was a small room with heated stones in a
platform in one corner onto which they poured water getting the stones red
hot and the bodies to perspire like they’d entered the gates of hell.
Construction was going on in one room. “This we hope to turn into a
restaurant,” she said. “We want to serve traditional Russian food like our
ancestors used to make.’
That sounded good to us and we planned to check it out next visit.
After we left we drove over to the old Russian cemetery, where headstones
inscribed in Cyrillic script attest to the legend of the Russian colony of milk
drinkers that found their peace so far away from home.
On a visit a couple of years ago I noticed a simple Russian restaurant
next door. The Russian legacy endures in Baja.
Museo Comunitario del Valle de Guadalupe is about 1½ miles west
of Highway #3 off the main road in Guadalupe, on the road to Francisco
Vineyard photo courtesy of the Baja Tourism Board
Molokan farmers photo courtesy of Molokane.org
Greg Niemann is the author of Baja Fever, Baja Legends, Palm Springs
Legends, Big Brown: The Untold Story of UPS, and Las Vegas Legends. Visit: Greg's website.